Adres siedziby:
ul. Sarego 2
31-047 Kraków
tel. 12 422 88 52
fax 12 422 80 65
Adres do korespondencji:
ul. Krakowska 1
32-083 Balice k. Krakowa
tel. (Centrala) 12 357 25 00
tel. (Sekretariat) 12 357 27 00
fax 12 285 67 33
Strona główna
Dzisiaj jest: piątek, 28 listopada 2014 3:48:34
Odwiedziło nas: 5721896 gości (dzisiaj: 335, wczoraj: 2306)
Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 207-212
 

X chromosome monosomy as one of the reasons for reduced fertility or infertility in the mare

Monika Bugno 1 , Ewa Słota 1 , Marek Tischner Jr 2 , Marian Tischner 2

1 Department of Immuno- and Cytogenetics, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

2 Department of Animal Reproduction, Agricultural University, al. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Abstract

The karyotype of 14 mares was investigated as part of cytogenetic control. The mares showed abnormal fertility due to anoestrus, repeat breeding, abortion or underdevelopment of internal reproductive organs. Karyotype of 9 horses was shown to be normal based on analysis of chromosome preparations that were Giemsa, GTG- and CBG- stained to identify sex chromosomes. The preparations were analysed under a light microscope using automated image analysing program MultiScan 6.08. The number of metaphase plates tested varied from 100 to 300. X chromosome monosomy was diagnosed in five mares; 63,X karyotype in pure form in one mare, and 63,X/64,XX karyotype in the form of mosaic cell lines in the other four mares with a low (3.5-9%) proportion of lines with an abnormal set of chromosomes.

Key words: horses, chromosome aberrations, X chromosome monosomy


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 213-224

Genetic relationships between Silesian, Thoroughbred and Oldenburg horses based on DNA microsatellite polymorphism

Tomasz Ząbek, Marian Duniec, Monika Bugno

Department of Immuno- and Cytogenetics, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

The purpose of the present experiment was to determine the degree of genetic differences between the Lower Silesian populations of Silesian and Thoroughbred horses and a population of Oldenburg horses derived from Germany. The gene pools of the horse groups tested were analysed at 12 microsatellite loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS1, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, VHL20) recommended for parentage verification tests. Microsatellite variants were amplified via the multiplex PCR method. The PCR products were separated on 4% acrylamide gels in an automated ABI377 sequencer. Large differences in the values of heterozygosity and effective allele number as well as the probability of finding two individuals with the same genotype point to greater gene pool variation at microsatellite loci of Silesian and Oldenburg horses. The lower number of alleles and the values of calculated coefficients in Thoroughbreds reflect greater genetic similarity within this breed. The largest genetic differences, expressed by standard genetic distance values, were revealed between all Silesian populations and the population of Thoroughbred horses. The comparatively small genetic distance between Thoroughbreds and Oldenburg horses reflects a strong influence of Thoroughbreds on modern warmblood horse breeds.

Key words: horses, microsatellite markers, genetic distance


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 225-233

Erythrocyte antigen polymorphism in Felin pony population in comparison to initial breeds

Anna Nogaj 1 , Jan Nogaj 1 , Anna Stachurska 2

1 Experimental Station Chorzelów, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 39-331 Chorzelów, Poland

2 Department of Horse Breeding and Use, Agricultural University, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

Abstract

The Felin Pony has been created by crossing various breeds and still is being consolidated. The aim of the study was to compare the genetic variability of erythrocyte antigens in the Felin Pony and foundation breeds: Shetland Pony, Biłgoraj Horse, Polish Konik Horse, Arab-Konik Horse, Hutsul Horse, Małopolski Horse and Purebred Arabian Horse , as well as to investigate the relationship among the populations . Thirty erythrocyte antigens were identified in 712 horses. On the basis of these data, the genetic structure of the populations was analysed. Gene frequencies were calculated for seven loci: EAA, EAC, EAD, EAK, EAP, EAQ and EAU . All 43 alleles, identified in the Felin Pony, were also observed in the foundation breeds. Statistically significant differences in allele frequency among the populations were found. Average heterozygosity values in the populations are high and range from 0.373 in the Purebred Arabian Horse to 0.558 in the Felin Pony and 0.596 in the Shetland Pony. The clusters in the dendrogram seem to be consistent with the breed origin. They show that the Felin Pony is the most distant from the Purebred Arabian Horse and the closest to the Shetland Pony, composing with it a unit separate from the other populations in the study. The Biłgoraj Horse and the Polish Konik Horse form another separate cluster.

Key words: horse, Felin Pony, erythrocyte antigens, genetic structure


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 235-241

Genetic marker based analysis of genetic structure of the Biłgoraj horse population

Anna Nogaj 1 , Jan Nogaj 1 , Ewa Słota 2 , Tomasz Ząbek 2

National Research Institute of Animal Production

1 Experimental Station Chorzelów, 39-331 Chorzelów, Poland

2 Department of Immuno- and Cytogenetics, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Biłgoraj horses are a breed group derived from feral horses, kept in the hunting grounds established by the Zamojski family. Although subjected to various crossings, these horses resemble the original forms of primitive horses. Currently, breeding is directed towards maintaining an endemic type of primitive horses, bred under stable-free conditions. A population of 45 Biłgoraj horses was investigated for the genetic structure of the herd based on analysis of erythrocyte antigens, blood proteins and enzymes at 14 loci: EAA, EAC, EAD, EAK, EAP, EAQ, EAU, AL, GC, ES, A1B, TF, PGD and PHI. Small antigenic differences (24 alleles) and a relatively high protein and enzyme polymorphism (18 alleles) were found. The alleles characteristic of the experimental population are: A adf , C - , D deloq , D delq , P - , Q b , U a4 , Gc F , Es F , Tf D1 , Tf D2 , Tf D3 and Tf F2 . There were no statistically significant differences between the number of observed and expected animals representing a given phenotype. The polymorphic information content (PIC) for particular loci was small except for four loci: EAD, TF, EAU and EAP (above 0.6). Despite the small size of the herd and specific breeding conditions, Biłgoraj horses are characterized by a relatively high mean degree of heterozygosity (0.424). Biłgoraj horses, treated by many breeders as Polish Koniks, have retained their distinct genetic character, as confirmed by the genetic marker studies.

Key words: Biłgoraj horses, genetic markers, gene frequency, degree of heterozygosity


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 243-253

Association between beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein polymorphism and variability of milk performance traits in Polish Black-and-White cow population maintained in different milk productivity herds

Krzysztof Walawski 1 , Ryszard Zieminski 2 , Andriej Novokszonov 1 ,

Urszula Czarnik 1 , Tadeusz Zabolewicz 1 , Chandra S. Pareek 1

1 Department of Animal Genetics, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn,

Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland

2 Department of Cattle Breeding and Milk Production, Agricultural University,

Chełmonskiego 38C, 51-631 Wrocław, Poland

Abstract

The present investigation was aimed to implicate the interaction effects between milk protein polymorphic loci and complex environmental factors differentiating milk yield and milk composition. Research was carried out in the group of 2559 cows characterizing the Polish Black-and-White cattle population. The results obtained from routine milk control were used to categorize 16 cattle herds according to different milk productivity. Five categories were selected: more than 10 000 kg (group I), 8000-10 000 kg (group II), 6500-8000 kg (group III), 5000-6500 kg (group IV) and less than 5000 kg (group V) of average milk productivity. Milk samples were collected randomly from 3- to 4-year-old cows. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used for simultaneous detection of polymorphic variants of ß-lactoglobulin (LGB), a-S1 casein (CSN1 S1), ß-casein (CSN2), and ?-casein (CSN3). The investigated cows were characterized by genotype and gene frequencies typical of the Black-and-White cattle population. Further investigations were limited to LGB and CSN3 polymorphic systems, because of their relatively well balanced genetic expression. Statistically significant differences were obtained for milk yield efficiency (LGB AA>LGB BB) in cows from groups I, II and III as well as (CSN3 AB>CSN3 AA, CSN3 BB) in group II and (CSN3 AA, CSN3 BB>CSN3 AB) in group V. Additionally significant differences were obtained for fat yield (LGB AA>LGB BB) in group III, and protein yield (LGB AA>LGB BB, CSN3 AB>CSN3 AA, CSN3 BB) in group II. Statistically significant differences were obtained also for fat content (CSN3 BB>CSN3 AA>CSN3 AB) in group II and (CSN3 AB>CSN3 AA, CSN3 BB) in group V as well as for protein content (CSN3 BB>CSN3 AA) in group I.

Key words: Black-and-White cows, different herds, milk protein polymorphism, milk performance traits


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 255-262

Synaptonemal complexes analysis of the European wild boars � carriers of the 15;17 Robertsonian translocation

Barbara Rejduch 1 , Ewa Słota 1 , Paweł Sysa 2 , Mariusz Kościelny 1 , Maria Wrzeska 1 , Marek Babicz 3

1 Department of Immuno- and Cytogenetics, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

2 Department of Morphological Sciences, Warsaw Agricultural University, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland

3 Department of Pig Breeding, Agricultural University, Akademicka 13a, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate synaptonemal complexes at the pachytene stage of prophase of the first meiotic division in three Polish wild boars � carriers of 15;17 Robertsonian translocation. The boars originated from two areas: South-Western and South-Eastern Poland. Preparations with metaphase spreads were obtained after the routine lymphocyte culture. We performed the GTG-banding technique according to the method described by Wang and Fedoroff (1972). The GTG-banding technique was applied for identification of particular pairs of chromosomes. The obtained banding patterns showed that translocated chromosome was composed of chromosomes 15 and 17. The samples of testes tissue from the wild boars were obtained after castration. The preparations of meiotic chromosomes for electron microscope were made according to Counce and Meyer's (1973) protocol. We analysed synaptonemal complexes in 300 spermatocytes I by electron microscopy. In all analysed cells we observed 17 bivalents and a completely paired trivalent, which involved three chromosome components � the translocated 15;17 chromosome and its homologues 15 and 17. We did not observe an association between trivalent and sex bivalent X-Y. The abnormal chromosome pairing in Robertsonian translocation carriers and their unequal segregation may lead to production of unbalanced gametes causing decreased fertility.

Key words: wild boar, Robertsonian translocation, synaptonemal complexes


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 263-267

Characteristics of selected physico-chemical and cytological parameters of sow's milk

Anna Rekiel, Justyna Więcek

Department of Animal Breeding and Production, Warsaw Agricultural University, Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warszawa, Poland

Abstract

The levels of sow's milk indicators: physical � acidity (pH), chemical (Ca, P, Na, K, Mg) and cytological � somatic cell count (SCC) were determined. The quality of milk was compared for sows used in the herd in reproductive cycles 1-3 (group A) and 4-5 (group B), in the initial (day 3) and final (day 42) stage of lactation. The level of major elements showed no regular changes and trends in the milk of sows in the groups analysed. There was a highly significant increase in Mg content and a significant increase in Ca and P contents during lactation. During the final stage of lactation, a significant increase in pH and a higher somatic cell count per 1 ml milk was observed, possibly indicating a deterioration in physical and cytological parameters.

Key words: sows, milk, pH, SCC, major elements


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 269-278

Diagnosis of a new reciprocal translcoation rcp(9;14)(q14;q23) in infertile boar after the synaptonemal complex analysis

Barbara Rejduch 1 , Ewa Słota 1 , Paweł Sysa 2 , Anna Kwaczynska 3 , Anna Kozubska-Sobocinska 1 , Barbara Danielak-Czech 1

1 Department of Immuno- and Cytogenetics, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

2 Department of Morphological Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland

3 Pig Hybridization Station, 64-122 Pawłowice, Poland

Abstract

Most structural chromosome rearrangements of reciprocal translocation type were hitherto described in the domestic pig. The investigations of this type of chromosome abnormality and their impact on fertility in animals were possible due to the development of new analytical methods, i.e. the examination of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) under the electron microscope (EM). The aim of this study was to analyse synaptonemal complexes (SCs) as well as mitotic chromosomes in the boars with fertility disorders. Seven boars characterized by lower fertility parameters were chosen for the study. Synaptonemal complexes in different substages of pachytene (early, mid and late) were observed in 60 spermatocytes per animal. In spermatocytes of 6 boars 19 normal pairing bivalents were observed. In one boar in all analysed cells the presence of 17 bivalents and one quadrivalent (cross configuration) was ascertained. No non-specific associations between quadrivalent and sex bivalent X-Y were found. This boar was the reciprocal translocation carrier characterized by the karyotype formula 38,XY rcp(9;14)(q14;q23). Infertility of this boar was expressed by all ineffective matings.

Key words: pigs, chromosomes, synaptonemal complexes (SCs), reciprocal translocation, fertility


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 279-285

Motility and plasma membrane integrity of rabbit spermatozoa during liquid storage

Piotr Gogol, Michał Bochenek

Department of Animal Reproduction, National Research Institute of Animal Production,

32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

The effects of a semen extender on motility and cell membrane integrity of rabbit spermatozoa were investigated. The ejaculates were divided into three parts and diluted with PBS, boar semen extender Biosolvens and a commercial rabbit semen extender Galap. Semen samples were stored at 18 ° C for 48 hours. Sperm motility was evaluated after 2, 24 and 48 hours of semen preservation using a light microscope. Cell membrane integrity was assessed flow cytometrically after 2 and 48 hours of semen preservation after double staining with fluorochromes SYBR14 and PI. The percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa in the semen diluted with Galap extender was significantly higher than in the semen diluted with Biosolvens and PBS, regardless of the semen preservation time. After 2 hours of semen preservation, the extender was found to exert no significant influence on the percentage of membrane-intact spermatozoa. At 48 hours of preservation, the percentage of membrane-intact spermatozoa in the semen diluted with Biosolvens extender was significantly (p<0.05) lower than in the semen diluted with Galap or PBS. The results indicate that compared to cell membrane integrity, assessed after sperm staining with SYBR14 and PI, sperm motility is a more sensitive indicator of the effect of extender on rabbit semen during liquid storage.

Key words: rabbit, semen storage, sperm membranes, flow cytometry


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 287-294

Egg content and eggshell traits in ducks from three maternal strains raised in Poland

Adam Mazanowski 1,2 , Marek Adamski 2

1 Department of Poultry Breeding, National Research Institute of Animal Production, Dworzyska 1, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland

2 Department of Poultry Breeding, University of Technology and Agriculture, Mazowiecka 28, 85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Abstract

Three maternal strains of P66, P77 and K11 ducks, which have been selected for over 20 years, were evaluated for reproductive traits, weight, and traits of eggshell and egg content and the results were compared between the strains and with foreign findings. The highest egg production and indices of duckling hatchability were obtained by P77 ducks (152 eggs), and the greatest egg weight in P66 ducks (90 g), which were characterized by the lowest egg production. Shell weight and traits showed greater values in eggs of P66 and P77 ducks except shell percentage in eggs (P77) and shell density (P66), compared to the eggs of K11 ducks. Egg content traits showed greater variation, with generally higher values in eggs of strains P66 and P77. The greatest percentage of yolk and the highest value of Haugh units were noted in the eggs of P77 ducks. Possibly, this is associated with better indicators of duckling hatchability compared to strains P66 and K11.

Key words: duck, reproductive traits, laying, egg traits

Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 295-300

The effect of some feed additives on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of pigs of different genotype

Maryia Dziuba, Anna Rekiel, Józef Kulisiewicz

Department of Animal Breeding and Production, Warsaw Agricultural University, Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland

Abstract

Thirty-two crossbred fatteners originated from Polish Large White ´ Polish Landrace sows crossed with Duroc or Belgian Landrace boars were investigated. The animals were divided into two groups by analogue method. Pigs from the control group were fed a diet with antibiotic supplementation (Flavomycin) and pigs from the experimental group received a diet with probiotic ToyoCerin (Bacillus toyoi) as the only growth promoter. The pigs were treated and fed individually, twice a day with ad libitum access to water. The fattening period was divided into two periods: from 21 kg to 55 kg of body weight (period I) and from 55 kg to 100 kg (period II). After fattening, all pigs were slaughtered, and 24 hours later measurements were made on right half carcass, together with partial dissection. The contents of dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, and crude fat were estimated in the samples of Musculus longissimus (ML). The fatty acid composition in lipid fraction of ML was determined by gas chromatography. Similar results of fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality were obtained for pigs fed the diets with antibiotic or probiotic. The carcasses of crossbred fatteners of two crosses were significantly different in traits which were controlled. The results obtained have shown the possibility of replacing the antibiotic by probiotic ToyoCerin during the fattening period.

Key words: fatteners, antibiotic, probiotic, carcass quality, meat


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 301-309

The effect of soybean or casein protein and different fats on cholesterol and triacylglycerol level in rats

Piotr Hanczakowski, Beata Szymczyk, Iwona Furgał-Dierżuk

Department of Animal Nutrition, National Research Institute of Animal Production,

32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

The effect of two proteins sources (casein C and soy protein isolate S) and four dietary fats (olive oil � OO, peanut oil � PO, sunflower oil � SO and lard � L) on the level of plasma lipids (total cholesterol - TC, high density lipoprotein � HDL-C and low density lipoprotein LDL-C cholesterol, triacylglycerols � TAG) was investigated in a 6-week experiment on rats. On the whole, kind of protein had no effect on any of the estimated lipids although when fed together with particular fats it changed the level of some lipids. For example, when OO was given with soy protein isolate LDL-C level was 28.2 and in the case of casein only 22.7 mg/dl. Fats changed the level of all estimated lipid fractions except LDL-C. OO gave the highest TC and HDL-C content (73.7 and 48.9 mg/dl, respectively). Cholesterolemic activity of lard was similar to that of vegetable oils but it resulted in the highest TAG level (145.9 mg/dl) and this difference was highly significant. These results allow a conclusion that the estimated fats had stronger effect on blood lipoprotein level than protein though mixtures of the same fat with various proteins could differ significantly. TAG was the most susceptible to cholesterolemic effect of fats of all estimated lipids.

Key words: rats, dietary protein, dietary fat, serum lipids


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 311-321

Mineral nutrients in Polish feedingstuffs

Part 2. Cereal grains

Franciszek Brzóska 1 , Witold Brzezinski 2 , Barbara Brzóska 1

1 Department of Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

2 Research Institute for Cultivar Testing, 63-022 Słupia Wielka, Poland

Abstract

The investigations covered 38 samples of winter wheat, 40 samples of spring barley, 40 samples of winter rye and 24 samples of maize cobs, totalling 142 samples of cereal grains cultivated in Poland in 1996 and 1997. The samples originated from degraded chernozem, brown and podzolic soils. The calcium content of cereal grains averaged 0.63±0.02 g/kg d.m. (P=0.01) and varied significantly according to the species. It was the highest in winter rye and the lowest in maize cobs. The calcium content of cereal grains varied significantly according to the year of cultivation. The phosphorus content of cereal grains averaged 3.43±0.04 g/kg d.m. and varied significantly according to the species (P=0.01), being the highest in winter wheat and the lowest in maize cobs. The difference between years of cultivation was not significant. The content of sodium in cereal grains averaged 0.33±0.01 g/kg d.m. It was the highest in spring barley and the lowest in winter rye (P=0.01). Sodium content was found to vary greatly between the years of sampling (P=0.01). Potassium content of cereal grains averaged 4.03±0.08 g/kg d.m. Potassium content of spring barley was significantly higher than in the other cereals (P=0.01). Significant differences were found between the years of cultivation for potassium content of grains (P=0.01). Magnesium content of grains averaged 1.42±0.01 g/kg d.m. It was the highest in winter wheat and the lowest in maize cobs (P=0.01). Differences between the years were significant (P=0.05). The zinc content of cereal grains averaged 33.28±0.87 µg/kg d.m. and was similar except winter wheat, where it was significantly higher than in the other cereals (P=0.01). The zinc content of cereal grains varied significantly between the consecutive years (P=0.01). The selenium content of cereal grains averaged 70.96±3.76 µg/kg d.m. and was significantly higher in maize cobs than in the other cereal grains (P=0.01). It also differed in the successive years of cultivation (P=0.01). The mineral content of grain from degraded chernozem and brown soils was higher than in grain from podzolic soils.

Key words: feedingstuff, minerals, cereal grains, year of cultivation, soil type


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 323-331

Integrated welfare assessment of group or individually housed dairy cows during lactation

Jacek Walczak

Department of Technology and Ecology of Animal Production, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

A comprehensive integrated assessment of lactating cows was performed in terms of the housing system. Group and tethered housing were considered and body condition, behaviour, blood morphology, baseline stress hormone levels, telemetry measurements of ECG, pulse and skin temperature were compared. The present findings showed better welfare of loose housed cows, as determined principally by the results of biophysical and behavioural measurements. The main difference in behaviour concerned freedom of movement in the group system, in which cows spent a considerable amount of the day (487.5 min) on this activity. Significant and highly significant differences were detected for other behavioural types such as lying, standing, feeding and atypical behaviors. Analysis of mean pulse rates showed that they varied significantly between tethered and group housed animals, for the latter exhibited lower mean pulse rates (68.4 beats/min). Telemetric measurements of ECG showed a greater incidence of various artifacts in tethered cows. In the group system, there were no changes such as T wave deflections or a prolongation of and variation in PQ interval. The most frequent changes in tethered animals were elevation of the QRST complex and higher ST segments. Within baseline hormone levels, only creatine kinase was significantly higher for tethered cows (72.51 vs. 64.27 pg/ml). Of the morphotic constituents of blood, the only differences appeared for plate numbers (336.99 vs . 304.77 M/ľl ´ 10 9 for tethered and group housing respectively).

Key words: cows, welfare, housing, biophysical parameters, behaviour


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 333-344

Preliminary studies on possibility of estimating pig belly lean percentage based on slaughter traits measured at a meat plant

Tadeusz Blicharski 1 , Grzegorz Zak 2 , Mariusz Pierzchała 1 , Robert Eckert 2

1 Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Jastrzębiec,

05-552 Wólka Kosowska, Poland

2 Department of Pig Breeding, National Research Institute of Animal Production,

32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Recent years have seen a growing market interest in belly that is high in lean. In breeding programmes belly lean content gains increasing importance, as evidenced by the high economic weights assigned to this trait. In many countries meat plants pay attention to this carcass cut when settling accounts with pig producers. This results in the need to find quick, simple, and objective methods for evaluation of belly lean content. The present study attempted to develop methods for estimating percentage lean content of pig based on postmortem linear measurements and dissection of some cuts to be used for production and breeding purposes. Seven regression equations were developed, accounting for different numbers and different combinations of measurements made on the cross-section and longitudinal section of the carcass. The equations were checked for accuracy. It was found that the best results were provided by equation (6) with parameters R = 0.522 and RSD = 6.923, which was developed based on 11 measurements. However, the accuracy of this equation is unsatisfactory when applied to evaluation of belly lean content in practice. The need for further study on the development of an optimal belly grading method has been indicated.

Key words: pig, belly lean content, regression equation


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 345-353

Changes in serum cortisol level and incidence of stereotyped behaviour in piglets weaned at different times, as an indicator of their welfare

Agata Szewczyk

Department of Technology and Ecology of Animal Production,

National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Weaning of piglets is one of the more drastic management procedures, having a particularly adverse impact on early weaned pigs. It is responsible for the incidence of stress, inhibited post-weaning growth and decreased welfare levels. The objective of this study was to determine the welfare of piglets weaned at different times based on baseline cortisol levels and the incidence of behavioural stereotypies. Five hundred piglets (four-breed crosses) were kept in four experimental groups differing in the time of weaning (days 21, 28, 35, 42) and in one control group weaned on day 56 of age. During the experiment, cortisol levels were measured and behavioural observations were made, with particular regard to the incidence of atypical behaviours. The results demonstrated that piglets weaned on day 42 were the least vulnerable to weaning stress, and thus displayed the highest welfare. Piglets weaned on day 28 responded to weaning stress with lower than baseline cortisol level on day 7 after weaning and with the most frequent incidence of stereotyped behaviours, indicating their low welfare status.

Key words: piglets, cortisol, weaning, welfare, stereotyped behaviour


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 355-364

Assessment of slaughter value and chemical composition of meat in 8-week-old ducks from maternal strains

Adam Mazanowski 1 , Ewa Gornowicz 2

1 Department of Poultry Breeding, University of Technology and Agriculture, Mazowiecka 28, 85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland

2 Poultry Research Branch, National Research Institute of Animal Production, Poznanska 11, 62-069 Palędzie, Poland

Abstract

Three maternal strains of ducks (P66, P77 and K11) were analysed for body measurements, slaughter yield, slaughter value and chemical composition of the meat. The best carcass tissue composition was shown by P66 ducks and the poorest by K11 ducks. Only percentage of leg muscles and content of abdominal fat did not differ significantly between the strains. Weights of carcass, leg and breast muscles were positively correlated with all body measurements. Good muscling and low fatness were reflected in shank length, chest circumference, shank circumference and breast muscle thickness. Breast and leg muscles of P66 ducks were characterized by a high pH value and high water holding capacity. Fat and protein percentages were similar in all the strains. Compared to leg muscles, breast muscles showed lower pH and lower water holding capacity and contained more protein and ash and less fat. The best results for meat traits were achieved by P66 ducks.

Key words: ducks, body measurements, tissue content, chemical components, correlation coefficients

 

Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 365-375

Physiological and production indicators of broiler chickens exposed to short-term thermal stress

Ewa Sosnówka-Czajka, Eugeniusz Herbut

Department of Animal Production Technology and Ecology, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Physiological and production response of broiler chickens to short-term cold and heat stress in the second period of rearing was investigated. The heat stress caused a decrease in thyroid hormones and metabolic rate, with no change in rectal temperature. It was shown that 10 ° C reduced temperature applied in the second period or rearing is not a stress factor, since no changes were observed in the physiological reactions. There were also no changes in the levels of total protein, albumin and immunoglobulins in the birds exposed to thermal stress. Short-term changes in ambient temperature did not lower weight gains or final body weights of the chickens, nor affected feed conversion per 1 kg weight gain.

Key words: thermal stress, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, total protein, albumins


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 377-388

Health status, blood picture and heavy metal concentrations in tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) in their third year of rearing in ponds fertilized with cattle slurry

Maciej Ligaszewski 1 , Andrzej Lysak 1 , Andrzej Pilarczyk 2

1 Department of Technology and Ecology of Animal Production, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

2 Department of Ichthyobiology and Fish Farming, Polish Academy of Sciences in Gołysz, 43-520 Chybie, Poland

Abstract

The effect of cattle slurry mineralized with a biotechnological preparation containing saprophytic organisms and aerated raw slurry on the health status of pond-reared carp ( Cyprinus carpio , L.) in their third year of rearing was investigated at the Experimental Station of the National Research Institute of Animal Production in Grodziec Sląski (Cieszyn Silesia, Poland). These forms of slurry were used in 1998-2000 to fertilize two commercial earthen ponds stocked in spring with 2-year-old carp at a density of 1200 fish/ha -1 . The same stocking rate was applied in the unfertilized control pond. It was found that annual doses of both slurry forms (24 t ha -1 ) were well tolerated by the carp. However, the health status and condition of carp were the best in the pond fertilized with biotechnologically mineralized slurry, despite the highest level of nitrites in the water of this pond (0.1 mg l -1 ) and the high level of methemoglobin in fish blood (3.3%). The concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead were analysed in the muscles and hepatopancreas. The accumulation of zinc, copper and cadmium in carp tissues was lower in the ponds fertilized with both forms of slurry than in the control pond. Conversely, lead concentration was higher.

Key words: carp, cattle slurry, pond fertilization, pond farming, fish health


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 3, No. 2 (2003) 389-397

Reduction of odorous gas compounds in biological treatment of ventilation air from layer house

Leszek Tymczyna, Anna Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska

Department of Animal Hygiene and Environment, Agricultural University, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

Abstract

The effectiveness of clearing exhaust ventilation air from organic pollutants, especially odorants, was investigated in a breeding layer farm using the biological treatment method of an open biofilter. The air of the layer house was shown to contain 5 groups of organic compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, as well as a group of other compounds which included amines, halogenated compounds, phenols and ketones. The reduction rate of all the pollutants introduced into the biofilter averaged 30%. Best results were obtained for aldehydes (54% on average) and aromatic hydrocarbons (50%). Considerably better results were obtained for 11 compounds that were selected from the entire pool of air compounds and are regarded as odorogenic. In this group, biofiltration succeeded for organic compounds such as acetaldehyde, xylenes and acetone, while phenol and 2-butanamine proved resistant to biofiltration.

Key words: air, odours, laying hens, biofiltration


Powrót
 
 
© 2008-2014 Instytut Zootechniki PIB (National Research Institute of Animal Production)
Koło Wędkarskie PZW w Oleśnicy pzw.wolesnicy.info - Strona Koła Wędkarskiego w Oleśnicy (świętokrzyskie)
Domki do wynajęcia, kwatery, pokoje do wynajęcia, Zakopane - http://www.empol-domki.pl

Ta strona używa cookies i podobnych technologii. Szczegóły znajdziesz w Polityce Prywatności.