Adres siedziby:
ul. Sarego 2
31-047 Kraków
tel. 12 422 88 52
fax 12 422 80 65
Adres do korespondencji:
ul. Krakowska 1
32-083 Balice k. Krakowa
tel. (Centrala) 12 357 25 00
tel. (Sekretariat) 12 357 27 00
fax 12 285 67 33
Strona główna
Dzisiaj jest: sobota, 23 września 2017 9:22:28
Odwiedziło nas: 8290517 gości (dzisiaj: 1870, wczoraj: 2142)
Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 5-13
 
Factors influencing the horse's results at central Polish jumping events

Anna Stachurska 1 , Mirosław Pięta 2

1 Department of Horse Breeding and Use, 2 Department of Sheep and Goat Breeding,

Agricultural University, Akademicka 134, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse how certain factors influence the results of horses competing at central Polish jumping events. One thousand seven hundred and thirty-six rounds made in 49 competitions by 323 horses were considered. The number of knock-downs and run-outs with refusals at obstacles compared to the total number of jumps in the round was scored. The analysis shows that the results of the horses competing at the central Polish jumping events depend on various factors besides the class of a competition, which is considered in horse rankings. The factors are: the competition type, the distance, the number of rounds in a day, the weather conditions, the rider's age category and the horse's size. The obstacles are knocked down more frequently in competitions run against the clock, in the accumulator with joker competition, in competitions of a shorter distance, in case of the second round made by a horse in a day, a higher competition class and when it is raining. They are run out more often in the accumulator with joker and the rider's style competitions, as well as when the horses are higher at withers or are ridden by juniors.

Keywords: horse, jumping ability, competition, jumping event


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 15-21

Assessment of size of centromeric heterochromatin regions in Puławska pigs

Marek Babicz 1 , Barbara Rejduch 2 , Anna Kozubska-Sobocińska 2 ,

Barbara Danielak-Czech 2 , Aleksander Walkiewicz 1 , Ewa Słota 2

1 Department of Pig Breeding and Production Technology, Agricultural University, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

2 Department of Animal Reproduction Biotechnology, Immuno- and Cytogenetics, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Size variation of constitutive heterochromatin blocks of acrocentric chromosome pairs 13-18 was analysed in Puławska pigs. Ten Puławska gilts, kept at the Experimental Farm of the Agricultural University of Lublin in Czesławice, were analysed. Centromeric regions in metaphase spreads were stained by CBG banding. Analysis was made on a total of 140 cells (14 per gilt). The size of heterochromatin blocks was measured with MultiScan software for computer-assisted microscopic image analysis. Polymorphic forms were determined using relative values that expressed the ratio of C-band sizes. Microscopic analysis of metaphase spreads revealed the polymorphism of centromeric heterochromatin blocks in heterozygous form in acrocentric chromosome pairs 13, 14, 15 and 16. It was found that differences in the size of constitutive heterochromatin most often concerned chromosome pair 16 (in four gilts). Polymorphism of centromeric regions was observed twice in pair 13. In pairs 14 and 15, differences occurred in single animals. No polymorphic size variants were observed in centromeres of autosome pairs 17 and 18. The polymorphic forms of C-bands determined on acrocentric chromosomes of the experimental animals will be used as chromosome markers in the description of Puławska pigs.

Key words: pigs, Puławska breed, polymorphism, heterochromatin, C-bands


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 23-31

Percentages of the most valuable elements in pork carcasses from different EUROP classes, graded with four devices

Tomasz Daszkiewicz, Stanisław Wajda

Department of Animal Raw Materials Commodity Science, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland

Abstract

The aim of the present studies was to determine the percentages of loin, ham, shoulder and neck in pork carcasses from various EUROP classes with four devices, i.e. Ultra-Fom 100 (364 carcasses), Ultra-Fom 300 (99 carcasses), CGM (239 carcasses) and CMM (250 carcasses). The coefficients of simple correlation between the percentages of these elements in carcasses and carcass meatiness were also calculated. It was found that carcasses representing lower classes were characterized by lower percentages of loin, ham, shoulder and neck. The highest correlation was observed between carcass meatiness and the percentages of loin and ham. The total content of the most valuable elements in carcasses was correlated to the lowest degree with carcass meatiness estimated with Ultra-Fom 100 (r=0.40**) and to a much higher degree with meatiness determined with the other devices (r=0.60**). There was a positive correlation between the percentages of loin and ham, and neck and shoulder. However, the coefficients of correlation between these elements were relatively low (r<0.3), despite their statistical significance. Among the four most valuable carcass elements analysed in the investigations, the highest correlation was observed between their total content and the percentage of loin (r=0.65** to r=0.67**) and ham (r=0.64** to r=0.76**).

Key words: pig carcasses, EUROP classes, primal cuts


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 33-42

Physical traits and hatching results of eggs from geese of Polish regional varieties

Tomasz Kisiel, Juliusz Książkiewicz

Department of Waterfowl Breeding Dworzyska, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 62-035 Kórnik near Poznań, Poland

Abstract

In conservative flocks of regional varieties of geese originated from southern Poland : L ublin (Lu), Kielce (Ki) and Subcarpathian (Pd) and geese originated from northern Poland: Rypin (Ry), Kartuzy (Ka) and Suwałki (Su), physical traits of eggs at the beginning (a), peak (b) and end of laying (c) and results of egg fertility and gosling hatchability were determined. Statistically significant differences were found between the goose varieties in egg width (from 57.2 to 59.0 mm), egg shape index (from 65.5 to 67.6), shell percentage in egg weight (from 10.5 to 11.0%) and egg fertility (from 87.7 to 93.8%). Goose eggs obtained at the peak of laying were significantly different among the flocks in terms of weight, width, shape index, weight and percentage of shell in egg, as well as area and thickness of egg shell. The weight and diameter of yolk differed significantly among the flocks in the initial, and the percentage of egg in yolk in the final period of laying. In addition, statistically significant differences in egg fertilization percentage were found at the peak and at the end of laying.

Key words: geese, biodiversity, conservative flocks, physical traits of egg, hatching results


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 43-55

Effect of copper inhibitors in diet on cows' yield, milk composition and cholesterol level in milk and blood serum

Franciszek Brzóska

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

The experiment was conducted with 16 multiparous Red-and-White cows in a 4 ´ 4 Latin square design. The effects of dietary copper level and copper inhibitors (iron, sulphur) on milk yield, milk characteristics, cholesterol content of milk, composition of fatty acids in milk, and level of principal serum metabolites were investigated. Copper intake was: 166 mg/d without Cu and Zn supplement (group I), 166 mg/d without Cu and Zn supplement and with added Fe and S (group II), 286 mg/d with added Cu and Zn (group III) and 646 mg/d with a high Cu and Zn supplement (group IV). Cows were fed with grass and maize silages and a concentrate mixture at a rate of 0.29 kg/kg milk output. Dry matter intake averaged 19.49±0.41 kg/d, including 11.67±0.21 kg/d for silages and 7.89 kg/d for concentrate mixture. Milk production averaged 28.33±0.68 kg/d and did not differ among the cows. No significant effect of the levels of dietary copper, zinc, iron and sulphur on total cholesterol in milk was observed. Cholesterol content of milk averaged 11.27±0.25 mg/100 ml. There were no significant differences in the content of fat, protein and lactose in milk and in their yield, which was equal to 1050, 977 and 1397 g/d, respectively. Levels of copper and zinc in cow diets did not significantly affect the level of N fractions in milk, including casein N, nor the composition of fatty acids in milk. There was no significant effect of copper and zinc level in cow diets and copper and zinc inhibitors on the level of cholesterol and examined metabolites in blood serum. Based on the results it is concluded that the levels of copper and zinc and of iron and sulphur as their inhibitors in cow diets do not significantly affect lipid metabolism in cows and cholesterol content of milk and blood serum.

Key words: dairy cows, copper, zinc, iron, sulphur, cholesterol, milk nutrients


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 57-67

Effect of dietary selenium on milk yield of cows and chemical composition of milk and blood

Franciszek Brzóska, Barbara Brzóska

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Thirty-two multiparous cows were investigated in a randomized block design (8 cows per group) during the grazing period. The cows received selenium in an unsupplemented mineral mixture and at a rate of 0, 2.4, 4.8 and 9.6 mg/d in the form of sodium selenite. This corresponded to 0.04, 0.12, 0.24 and 0.48 mg Se/kg of dry matter. Giving the cows different selenium doses did not affect total feed and dry matter intakes. Average intake of dry matter was 20.03±0.14 kg/d, including 6.38±0.11 kg/d concentrate for the diet. Supplementation of the cows with selenium significantly increased selenium concentration in blood and milk. Giving selenium at a rate of 0.12 to 0.48 ľg Se/kg of diet dry matter increased selenium concentration in blood from 20.18 to 39.05 ľg/100 ml and in milk from 10.02 to 21.09 ľg Se/1000 ml. Selenium supplementation did not significantly affect the milk output, milk physical traits, and amounts of fat, protein and lactose in 24-h periods. Average milk yield was 24.81±0.47 kg/d, including 23.80±0.42 kg/d for 4% FCM milk. The contents of fat, protein and lactose in milk were 3.73±0.03, 3.05±0.03 and 4.85±0.03, respectively. Production of milk nutrients was 921±20, 755±15 and 1208±26 g/d, respectively. There were no significant differences in milk traits such as density, acidity and clotting time, which amounted to 1.0288±0.0001 g/cm 3 , 6.40±0.06 ° SH and 129±8 s, respectively. Supplementing the cows with selenium did not cause significant changes in the contents of glucose, urea, triglycerides, and major mineral elements in blood serum, but significantly decreased the level of cholesterol from 228.57 to 183.91 mg/dl, including HDL and LDL lipoproteins. The results indicate that to obtain about 20 ľg Se/litre milk, it is necessary to apply about 0.30 mg Se/kg of diet dry matter for cows.

Key words: selenium, cows, yield, milk nutrients


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 69-78

Effect of calcium salts of fatty acids and selenium on cows' milk yield and composition

Franciszek Brzóska

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Sixteen multiparous cows were investigated in a 4 ´ 4 Latin square design. Selenium was added to a mineral mixture in the form of sodium selenite at a rate of 0.20 (low level) and 0.45 (high level) mg Se/kg dry matter, which corresponded to an intake of 3.5 and 7.7 mg Se/d. Dietary fat in the form of calcium salts of fatty acids (Erafet, Innfoss) was produced from rapeseed oil, fish oil and linseed oil and supplemented at a rate of 4.36% of ration dry matter, which corresponded to 770 g/cow/d. Supplementation of the cows with calcium salts of fatty acids (CaSFA) and different selenium doses did not affect total feed and dry matter intake. Dry matter intake averaged 17.55±0.13 kg/d, including 9.27±0.08 kg/d for silages. Intake of concentrate mixture averaged 6.11±0.11 kg/d. Dietary fat and selenium had no significant effect on milk output, nutrient content, physical characteristics of milk and amount of milk components obtained in 24-h periods. Milk yield averaged 25.15±0.41 kg/d. The content of fat, protein and lactose in milk was 3.73±0.08, 3.36±0.05 and 5.01±0.02, respectively. No significant differences were found in milk characteristics such as acidity, density and renneting time. There were no significant differences in the content of glucose, total protein and urea in blood serum. Supplementing the cows with CaSFA significantly increased the content of triglycerides and cholesterol in blood, while higher selenium doses significantly reduced the content of both triglycerides and cholesterol. Supplementing the cows with higher selenium doses significantly increased its content in blood and milk. The content of selenium increased on average from 35.81 to 50.23 ľg/dl in blood and from 15.52 to 26.29 ľg/l in milk. In conclusion, about 20 ľg Se/l milk can be obtained when using above 0.30 mg Se/kg of ration dry matter, which corresponds to 3.5-4.0 mg Se/cow/d and is not related to the level of dietary fat.

Key words : calcium salts of fatty acids, selenium, yield, milk nutrients


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 79-90

Iodine and selenium concentration in cow's milk and serum

and its relation to milk yield, mineral content and selected metabolic parameters

Witold Wiewióra 1 , Franciszek Brzóska 2 , Barbara Brzóska 2 , Mariusz Pietras 2

1 Experimental Station, National Research Institute of Animal Production, Grodziec Sląski Ltd., 43-386 Swiętoszówka, Poland

2 Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary iodine and selenium and their interaction on cow performance, milk composition and characteristics, iodine and selenium concentration in blood and milk, and concentration of thyroid hormones in blood. The study was carried out in an analog design with 32 Red-and-White cows assigned to four groups, each of 8 cows. The 126-day experiment consisted of three 42-day periods. The dietary ration contained pasture grass, fresh brewer's grain, a feed mixture and a mineral mixture differing in iodine and selenium concentrations. The dietary concentration averaged 1.69 and 2.99 mg/kg d.m. for iodine and 0.32 and 0.54 mg/kg d.m. for selenium. The effect of iodine intake was not significant on the milk yield, fat and protein content of milk, and milk density. Higher selenium doses significantly increased the milk yield and the protein content of milk. Cow performance during the experiment averaged 20.85±0.72 kg/day, with 3.82±0.07% fat content and 3.26±0.4% protein content. Milk acidity was 6.53±0.10 ° SH and milk density 1.0300±0.0002 g/cm 3 . The iodine concentration in milk for both dietary iodine concentrations was 92.92 and 132.65 ľg/1000 ml, and that of selenium 6.14 and 8.94 ľg/1000 ml, respectively. 5.2 to 7.5% iodine and 1.9 to 2.7% selenium were secreted in milk in relation to their intake. The higher iodine dose significantly increased magnesium concentration in blood plasma and sodium and zinc concentration in milk. The higher selenium doses significantly increased the concentration of calcium in milk. There was no significant interaction of iodine and selenium in their effect on the mineral components of cows' blood and milk. The higher iodine doses significantly increased the level of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL and HDL fractions in blood plasma. No significant interaction of iodine and selenium in their effect on metabolic indicators of glucose, protein and fat was found.

Key words : cows, iodine, selenium, interaction, yield, milk nutrients, blood


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 91-100

Effect of feeding herb mixture on cow performance, modification of milk chemical composition, technological value of milk for processing and nutritive value for humans

Juliusz Kraszewski 1 , Tadeusz Grega 2 , Marek Wawrzyński 3

1 Department of Animal Production Technology and Ecology, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

2 Department of Animal Products Processing, Agricultural University, Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-59 Kraków, Poland

3 Experimental Station of the National Research Institute of Animal Production, Rossocha Ltd., 96-200 Rawa Mazowiecka, Poland

Abstract

This study investigated the efficacy of feeding high-yielding cows with concentrates containing 1 or 2% herb supplements. The best results were obtained in a group of cows given a concentrate ration with the 2% herb supplement. In relation to the unsupplemented control group, there was significantly better nutrient conversion per 1 kg milk obtained, 1.6 kg higher daily milk yield on average, and 0.08% higher fat and 0.04% higher protein contents of milk. The milk was technologically more suitable for cheese making. Composition of fatty acids both in milk and in butter made from it showed that both these products were of greater nutritive value for humans.

Key words: cows, feeding, herb mixture, yield, milk composition, technological value


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 101-108

Slaughter value of Black-and-White bulls finished on a reduced energy diet

Ryszard Chaberski 1 , Adam Oler 2

1 Agricultural Experimental Station, Institute of Plant Protection, Winna Góra, 63-013 Szlachcin, Poland

2 Department of Cattle Breeding, University of Technology and Agriculture, ul. Mazowiecka 28, 85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland

Abstract

The effect of reducing the energy value of a diet to 80% maintenance requirement during the final 64 and 50 days of finishing young Black-and-White bulls on carcass parameters was investigated. Change of the diet improved EUROP carcass grading scores thanks to better muscling and lower fat content of the carcass, with no changes in composition of the m. longissimus dorsi muscle and dressing percentage. The duration of feeding the modified diet had no significant effect on the parameters studied.

Key words: bulls, fattening, slaughter value


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 109-124

Assessment of reproductive and dairy performance, body condition and fatness in Black-and-White heifers depending on energy and protein feeding level

Krzysztof Bilik 1 , Juliusz Strzetelski 1 , Barbara Niwińska 1 , Stanisław Osięgłowski 2

1 Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-082 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

2 Experimental Station, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 64-122 Pawłowice, Poland

Abstract

The effects of feeding rations with different levels of energy (UFL) and protein (PDI) during the prepubertal and postpubertal phase on growth, body condition, degree of fatness and some reproductive traits of Black-and-White ´ Holstein-Friesian heifers and their subsequent milk yield and composition were investigated. The relationship between body condition score and degree of fatness, as measured on live animals by subcutaneous fat thickness on the back was also determined for heifers of different age during growth, prior to calving and after calving. The studies were carried out with 43 Black-and-White heifers (77.5% HF) from 6 months of age to 100 days of lactation. Animals were assigned to 5 groups equivalent in terms of genotype, age and body weight (8-10 animals per group). From 6 to 11 months of age (period 1) and from 12 to 13 months of age (period 2), they were fed diets with different energy (UFL) and protein (PDI) levels according to IZ-INRA requirements (2001). In group K the diets met 100% of the requirement for UFL and PDI and were formulated to achieve daily gains of 700 g. In the other groups compared to group K, UFL and PDI levels in period 1 and 2 were (%): 85/85 and 115/115 (group A); 85/115 and 100/100 (group B); 115/85 and 100/100 (group C); 115/115 and 115/115 (group D) respectively. From 14 months of age to 3 weeks before calving, all the heifers were fed the same diets as in group K. Thereafter heifers were fed with rations formulated for dairy cows, assuming the maximum production (MP) at peak lactation to be 30 kg milk per day. In each age group and prior to and after calving, highly significant relationships were found between body condition score (BCS) on a 5-point scale and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) on the back. Increasing the energy (UFL) and protein (PDI) level in the diet to 115% of the IZ-INRA requirement (2001), formulated for a daily gain of 700 g in prepubertal (period 1) and postpubertal (period 2) heifers, improved body condition, increased body fatness within the range considered optimal for this breed, and helped to obtain heavier and taller animals after puberty. This way of feeding the heifers had no adverse effect on reproductive parameters, but reduced age at first calving and had a favourable effect on dairy performance of first-calving cows over the first 100 days of lactation.

Key words: heifers, Black-and-White breed, reproductive performance, dairy performance, feeding


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 125-133

Effect of calcium-magnesium carbonate and magnesium carbonate on magnesium retention and absorption in growing sheep

Wacław Zyzak 1 , Franciszek Brzóska 2 , Barbara Brzóska 2 ,

Jolanta Michalec-Dobija 1

1 Animal Production Experimental Station, Grodziec Sląski (Lipowa), 43-386 Swiętoszówka, Poland

2 Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Wethers with an average weight of 40.5±3.0 kg were supplemented with magnesium in the form of dolomite (570 to 1790 mg/day) and magnesite (170 to 1800 mg/day). Magnesium retention and absorption was investigated. The experiment was carried out with 25 Pogórza sheep wethers assigned by drawing to 5 groups. The sheep were given feed which contained (g/kg d.m.): glucose (290), potato starch (280), cellulose (300), urea (40), sunflower oil (40) and minerals (50). Growing dolomite doses increased magnesium retention, true absorption and the amount of faecal and urinary magnesium. True absorption of magnesium in the range of magnesium intake from dolomite of 35.2 to 110.2 mg/kg metabolic body weight increased from 5.9 to 49.1 mg Mg/kg metabolic body weight. True absorption of magnesium in the wethers was high at 16.6 to 52.9% of dietary magnesium intake. Magnesium in blood serum rose from 1.88 mg/dl in the groups given no magnesium to 2.35 and 3.33 mg Mg/dl in the groups given 35.2 and 110.2 mg Mg/kg metabolic body weight/day, respectively. True absorption of magnesium in the range of Mg intake from magnesite of 40.7 to 130.8 mg/kg metabolic body weight increased from 8.5 to 50.9 mg Mg/kg metabolic body weight. True absorption of magnesium ranged from 21.0 to 38.9% of dietary magnesium intake. The higher magnesium intake from magnesite and the higher true absorption were accompanied by an increase in serum magnesium from 0.96 mg/dl in the groups given no magnesium to 2.22 and 2.31 mg/dl in the groups receiving 101.1 and 130.8 mg Mg/kg metabolic body weight/day, respectively. When the magnesium intake from magnesite was slightly higher, its serum content was lower than for dolomite intake.

Key words: magnesium, availability, sheep


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 135-144

Chemical composition of modified rye and its effect on productive parameters and carcasses of broiler chickens

Franciszek Brzóska 1 , Witold Brzeziński 2

1 Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice, Poland

2 Research Centre for Cultivar Testing, 63-022 Słupia Wielka, Poland

Abstract

Chemical composition and usefulness of traditional and modified rye in broiler chicken nutrition were investigated. A fragment of wheat chromosome with the locus Glu-D1 encoding high molecular weight glutenin was transferred into the rye. The modified rye contained more crude protein, crude fat and N-free extractives. It also had more amino acids, including lysine (4.12 g/kg) and methionine (1.93 g/kg). The content of alkylresorcinols in both forms of rye was 1.40 g/kg, and the content of soluble pentosans was 16.8 and 16.4 g/kg respectively. Feeding the broilers with concentrate mixtures containing 15% of rye grain did not result in significant differences in body weights of 2.25±0.03 kg (range of 2.21 kg to 2.28 kg). In the group fed with modified rye, body weight was 30 g/bird lower than in the maize-fed group and 60 g lower than in the group given wheat and traditional rye. Feed intake during the whole rearing period averaged 5.06 kg (range of 4.72 to 5.29 kg/bird), being higher for the feed containing traditional and modified rye. Feed conversion averaged 2.34 kg/kg (range of 2.18 to 2.48 kg/kg) and was lower for the mixtures containing both forms of rye. Chicken mortality averaged 6.40%, including 2.03% in the first period of rearing and 4.37% in the second. Hot dressing percentage averaged 71.41±0.72% and cold dressing percentage was 73.00±0.35% with no significant differences among the groups. Hot carcass weight was 25.7±2.05 g/bird and was significantly lower in the groups fed with wheat and modified rye and with wheat and barley (P=0.01). Weights of kidney fat, gizzard, liver, paws, leg bones and skin did not show significant differences among the groups. Modifying the rye to enhance its baking value improved its chemical and amino acid composition. There were no significant changes in the content of antinutritional factors in both forms of rye. Giving the chickens both forms of rye at 15% of the diet did not result in significant differences in body weights and carcass composition.

Key words: rye grain, modification, growth of chickens, feed conversion, carcass quality


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 145-153

The effect of pure saturated fatty acids on cholesterol and triacylglycerol level in rats

Piotr Hanczakowski, Beata Szymczyk, Witold Szczurek

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

A 5-week experiment on rats was performed to estimate cholesterolemic activity of saturated fatty acids (SFA): lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic and to compare it with the effect of olive and linseed oils. The experimental groups consisted of 6 male rats weighing about 160 g at the beginning of the experiment. Semi-synthetic diets in which estimated acids or oils were the only sources of fat were used. After completing the experiment, rats' blood was collected by cardiac puncture and total cholesterol (TC), its high-density lipoprotein fraction (HDL-C) and triacylglycerols (TAG) were estimated. The low-density lipoprotein fraction (LDL-C) was calculated as a difference between TC and HDL-C. It was found that SFA promoted higher body weight gains than plant oils. Rats fed with linseed oil had the lowest level of all estimated lipids and in the case of TC and TAG these differences were significant and highly significant, respectively. There was no significant difference in TC content in blood of rats fed all the remaining fats. The largest (highly significant) differences were found in the TAG levels. Its content in blood of rats receiving palmitic acid (1.09 mmol l -1 ) was twice as high as that of rats fed with linseed oil (0.53 mmol l -1 ). Content of cholesterol in thigh muscle, different in different groups, was not related to its level in blood. In conclusion it can be stated that pure saturated fatty acids C 12 � C 18 fed to rats resulted in high body weight gains and had no hypercholesterolemic activity when compared to olive oil.

Key words: rats, fatty acids, cholesterol, triacylglycerols


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 155-161

The effect of different starches and proteins on serum lipid profile in the rat

Piotr Hanczakowski, Beata Szymczyk, Iwona Furgał-Dierżuk

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract
Eight-week-old male Albino rats in six groups of 6 rats each were used to test the effect of wheat, maize and rice starch on serum lipid profile. Each of the three groups of rats receiving different starches were fed with diets based on casein or soy protein isolate. The experiment lasted 60 days. The animals had free access to feed and water. No significant differences in body weight gains of rats were found. The type of starch had a significant effect on total cholesterol - TC (P<0.05), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerols (TAG) level in serum of rats (P<0.01). Wheat starch caused the highest level of all lipids analysed except that of LDL-C. Soy protein isolate resulted in a higher (P<0.01) level of TC and LDL-C and a slightly higher level of HDL-C but this difference was not statistically significant. It may be concluded that in this experiment the effects of different dietary starches on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol level were more evident than those of dietary proteins.

Key words : rats, dietary starch, dietary protein, serum lipids.


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 163-171

The effect of management practices on the occurrence of intestinal nematodes in pigs

Paweł Nosal

Department of Zoology and Ecology, Agricultural University of Cracow, al. A. Mickiewicza 24/28, 30-059 Kraków, Poland

Abstract

A total of 2391 gilts, 8-10 weeks old, originating from 88 pedigree farms in Poland, were examined coprologically in a field study. Nematodes were found in 25.1% of the population studied, and the mean intensity equalled 1206 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum sp. were the predominant parasites, whereas Trichuris suis and Strongyloides ransomi eggs occurred only rarely. The gilts from larger herds (with a minimum of 25 sows in breeding stock) had significantly (P<0.05) lower odds of being infected compared with those from smaller ones (having up to 25 sows per herd). Significant seasonal variations in the levels of helminth and A. suum infections were observed (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), with the highest egg excretion in the summer months. The results suggest the great importance of management factors in relation to the helminthosis in swine herds.

Key words: helminths, swine


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 173-179

The course and control of coccidiosis in goats

Aleksandra Balicka-Ramisz 1 , Bogumiła Pilarczyk 1 , Vovk Stakh Osipovic 2

1 Department of Animal Hygiene and Prophylaxis, Agricultural University, Doktora Judyma 6, 71-466 Szczecin, Poland

2 Lviv State Agrarian University, Lviv-Dubljany, 80381, Ukraine

Abstract

The study was carried out in a flock of 145 goats. Nine species of coccidia were found: Eimeria christenseni, E. arloingi, E. jolchijev, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. alijevi, E. apsheronica, E. caprina, E. caprovina and E. hirci . Eighty one per cent of adults and 100 per cent of kids were infected. Number of oocysts per g of faeces ranged from 1 400 to 203 000. Clinical symptoms in about 50 per cent of kids were observed. Toltrazuril (Baycox, Bayer) was highly efficacious at 20 mg/kg of body weight in treatment of goat coccidiosis. After Baycox natrum administration single oocysts were found only in 4 kids.

Key words: goats, coccidiosis, infection rate, control, Baycox


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 181-186

Long-term profitability of cow milk production

Stanisława Okularczyk

Department of Technology, Ecology and Economics of Animal Production,

National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Long-term profitability of cow milk production was studied over 1991-2003 in 49 farms situated in different regions of Poland. Cow stocking density, scale of production, milk yield, quality and prices, feed and non-feed costs, and agricultural revenue and income were investigated. In the hierarchy of profitability factors, milk yield, milk quality and proportion of farm-produced feeds in cow feeding were found to occupy the highest position. It was calculated that a stocking density of 28 cows (yielding 4500 kg milk) to 12 high-performance cows (yielding 8500 kg milk) is necessary to obtain an agricultural income comparable to average wages outside agriculture.

Key words: cow milk, yield, quality, scale of production, profitability


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 187-196

Relationship between milk purchase price and retail price of some dairy products as a measure of the economic status of the farmer, a link in the raw materials chain

Anna Szumiec

Department of Technology, Ecology and Economics of Animal Production,

National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Data were gathered to estimate the relationship between farmer as a link in the raw materials chain and the retail price of dairy products. The studies were conducted in dairies and dairy shops from south-eastern Poland over the period 1999-2001. Milk purchase prices paid to farmers by the processing industry, total unit production costs of some product ranges in the dairies, prices of product ranges sold by the dairies to retailers, retail prices in shops, and share of the milk purchase price in the retail prices of different dairy products were investigated. Average results for the whole study period in all dairies and dairy shops were the following: milk purchase price 0.69 zl/l, production costs: full-fat curd cheese 5.81 zl/kg, medium-fat curd cheese 5.05 zl/kg, maturing rennet cheese 9.79 zl/kg, dairy cream 5.56 zl/l, butter 10.95 zl/kg, kefir 0.81 zl/l; prices paid by retailers to dairies: full-fat curd cheese 6.41 zl/kg, medium-fat curd cheese 6.11 zl/kg, maturing rennet cheese 11.39 zl/kg, dairy cream 4.92 zl/l, butter 11.22 zl/kg, kefir 1.01 zl/l; retail prices in dairy shops: full-fat curd cheese 7.14 zl/kg, medium-fat curd cheese 6.87 zl/kg, maturing rennet cheese 12.12 zl/kg, dairy cream 5.51 zl/l, butter 11.92 zl/kg, kefir 1.18 zl/l; share of the milk purchase price in the retail price of dairy products: full-fat curd cheese 9.66%, medium-fat curd cheese 10.04%, maturing rennet cheese 5.69%, dairy cream 12.52%, butter 5.79%, kefir 58.47%.

Key words: market, price criteria, retail price, supply, demand


Ann. Anim. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 1 (2004) 197-203

Profitability trends in pig production in 1991-2003

Stanisława Okularczyk

Department of Technology, Ecology and Economics of Animal Production,

National Research Institute of Animal Production, 32-083 Balice n. Kraków, Poland

Abstract

Closed-cycle pig farms were investigated for total costs and agricultural incomes. Prices of all means of production and costs of rearing and fattening pigs were found to increase from 1991 to 2003. Variations in prices of piglets and live pigs were not cyclical and showed a slight increase. Profitability of pig production decreased over the study period as a result of marked differences in the rate and scale of the price increases. The minimum scale of production that brought parity income in agriculture rose over twice from 1991 to 2003. To achieve an income comparable with wages outside agriculture, a producer had to sell 295 pigs in 1991 and 710 pigs in 2003. When feeding pigs with purchased feeds that are more expensive, the parity income is obtained by selling 840 pigs. The costs of pig production in the state sector are 32% higher on average than in the private sector. This sector is additionally burdened with employment costs among others.

Key words: rearing of piglets, fattening, economics, costs, income


Powrót
 
 
© 2008-2017 Instytut Zootechniki PIB (National Research Institute of Animal Production)
Koło Wędkarskie PZW w Oleśnicy pzw.wolesnicy.info - Strona Koła Wędkarskiego w Oleśnicy (świętokrzyskie)
Odpowiedz na wyzwania (konkursy), głosuj, wygrywaj nagrody

Ta strona używa cookies i podobnych technologii. Szczegóły znajdziesz w Polityce Prywatności.